Neural Network Basics - deine Info-Quelle für KI/AI-News

Introduction to Neural Networks

Neural networks (NN), also known as neural nets or neural networks, are a central component of Machine Learning and function as specialized algorithms in Artificial Intelligence (AI). Inspired by the functioning of the human brain, they have the potential to recognize complex patterns in data and form the basis for many modern AI applications.

Basic Components: Neurons in AI

To understand how neural networks work, it’s crucial to grasp the concept of neurons in AI. Neurons are the fundamental building blocks of an artificial neural network (ANN) and simulate the function of biological neurons in the human brain. Each neuron in an ANN receives inputs, processes them, and outputs a result, which serves as input for other neurons.

Architecture and Functioning of ANN

In an ANN, neurons are organized in various layers:

Input Layer

The first layer, comparable to sensory neurons in the brain, receives the input data.

Hidden Layers

Between the input and output layers, there can be one or more hidden layers that further process the data.

Output Layer

The final layer produces the end result, similar to motor neurons in the brain.

Each neuron is connected to many others and sends signals through these connections, known as weights. These weights determine the influence of one neuron on another and are adjusted through training.

Training and Optimization

Training a neural network is a process of adjusting these weights to optimize the network for a specific task. This process enables the network to recognize patterns in data, make predictions, and make decisions.

Applications of Neural Networks

The ability of neural networks to recognize complex patterns has led to their widespread application in areas such as speech and image recognition and autonomous vehicles.

Neural Network Models

In the world of Machine Learning and AI, neural networks hold a key position. Four central network models – the Perceptron, the Feed-Forward Network, the Recurrent Network, and the Convolutional Network – form the basis for a variety of applications.

The Perceptron: Foundation of Neural Networks

The Perceptron, a simplified ANN, consists of a single layer of neurons. It performs binary classification by processing inputs and calculating weights. A classic example of its application is classifying emails as spam or non-spam.

The Feed-Forward Network: One-Way Information Flow

Feed-Forward Networks, typical multi-layered ANNs, linearly direct information from the input through hidden layers to the output layer. They are excellent for tasks like image classification or speech recognition. An example is Tesseract, an open-source OCR service that extracts text from images.

The Recurrent Network (RNN): Processing Sequential Data

Recurrent Networks (RNNs) are characterized by feedback loops, allowing them to store information from previous steps. They are ideal for processing sequential data like texts or time series. Examples include DeepMind’s AlphaFold for protein structure prediction and OpenAI’s ChatGPT for text generation.

The Convolutional Network (CNN): Specialist for Spatial Data

CNNs are optimized for processing data with spatial structure, such as images. They use Convolutional and Pooling Layers to extract features from the data for classification or segmentation tasks.

Convolutional Layers: Local Pattern Recognition

Convolutional Layers perform convolution operations to identify local patterns and features like edges, textures, or shapes in images.

Pooling Layers: Reducing Data Volume

Pooling Layers reduce the spatial dimension of data and thus the number of model parameters. Max-Pooling is typically used, selecting the most dominant value in a specific area, contributing to invariance to minor shifts in the image.

Application of CNNs: Image Recognition and Processing

CNNs have achieved significant success in image recognition. Applications like ResNet for facial recognition or YOLO for object detection demonstrate their ability to recognize and interpret complex patterns in images.


Neural networks are a fascinating and integral part of modern AI systems. Their ability to recognize complex data patterns and learn from them makes them indispensable for today’s advanced AI applications.

The diverse network models offer a wide range of possibilities for the development and application of modern AI systems. Their specific properties and areas of application make them essential tools in the world of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence.